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留学生要知道学术写作比标化考试写作更重要

As a test of academic English abilities, the TOEFL iBT test assesses academic English writing skills. The test assesses whether L2 English learners have the writing skills to succeed in university courses. There are many different writing tasks students must perform in English-language universities, and many need to be written in specific ways for the different audiences that will read them. For example, depending on the discipline and level of study, students will write many of the following types of academic texts1: critical essay, examination essay, case study report, <a href="http://www.lunwentop.net/tags/102.html">literature review</a>, reflective essay, a thesis, business report, poster presentation, lab report, <a href="http://www.lunwentop.net/tags/112.html">research proposal</a>, abstract, research report, team assignments, management brief, website, email, and others.

作为一项学术英语能力测试,新托福考试评估的是考生的英语学术写作能力。该测试对第二英语学习者在大学各类课程的写作能力进行评估。在以英语为语言的学校里,学生需要完成多项不同的写作任务,其中,许多任务需要遵照指定的要求完成,以满足不同的读者需求。例如,基于学科和学习水平,学生需要完成下列多项学术写作:评论文章、考试论文、案例研究报告、文献综述、反思性文章、论文、业务报告、壁报论文、实验报告、开题报告、摘要、研究报告、团队作业、管理简单、网上作业、邮件报告等等。

Within these tasks, students will need to master certain writing subtasks such as providing factual information; explaining a concept; describing people, places, or things; narrating events; stating and supporting an opinion; and presenting and defending an argument (to name a few). In addition, students need to have writing planning and preparation skills. They need to summarize or paraphrase material from academic sources (from listening or reading texts). And they need to take notes after listening or reading.

在完成这些写作任务中,学生需要掌握一定的写作步骤,比如提供客观信息,解释概念,对人物、地点、事情进行描述,叙述事实,提出观点并加以说明,提出论点并进行论证(以上为例)。另外,学生还需要学会拟定写作计划,做好写作之前的相关准备工作。他们需要对学术材料中的资料(听到或读到的)进行总结或释义。在听和阅读的过程中,他们要学会记笔记。

语言教师如何培养学生学术写作能力?

How can language teachers help their students develop academic writing abilities? There are many things that instructors can do to help learners write successfully. I provides several concepts and techniques for teaching EAP writing, including the following topics:

Developing strategic writers

Raising genre/rhetorical awareness

Understanding academic language

Strategies for planning writing

Helping students develop language control

Strategies for developing vocabulary knowledge for academic writing

Strategies for reading to write

Instructor, peer, and student strategies for providing writing feedback

语言教师应该如何培养学生的学术写作能力?有多种方式可以用来帮助学生成功掌握写作技巧。我列举了EAP写作教学中的相关概念和技巧,内容如下:

•培养学生的写作方法

•提高文体/修辞意识

•理解学术语言

•学会拟定写作计划

•帮助学生提高语言掌握能力

•扩展学术写作中的相关词汇知识

•培养学生从阅读中学会写作

•提供写作反馈,包括来自教师、同伴和同学的反馈

ETS学术学习目标,托福网考写作项目与学术写作

It should be clear that there are close similarities between the ETS academic learning objectives, TOEFL iBT test writing items, and the academic writing skills. In addition, the teaching techniques suggested in this module target all of the abilities expressed in the ETS objectives (as shown in the example lesson plan) and will simultaneously help students develop writing abilities assessed on the TOEFL iBT test as well.

需要说明的是,美国教育考试服务中心的学术学习目标、托福网考写作项目和学术写作技能之间存在着密切的相关性。此外,本模块所建议的教学方法适用于美国教育考试服务中心(ETS)目标中所规定的各项能力培养需求(如范例教案所示),这些方法也将帮助学生提高新托福考试中考核的写作能力。

学术写作与语言教师的任务设计

Instructors should use the ETS academic writing objectives to plan and design task-based EAP lessons. Doing so will also develop EAP writing skills assessed on the TOEFL iBT test. A model of this approach is shown in the example lesson plan, using the following TBLT instructional strategies:

教师在规划和设计以任务为基础的EAP课程中,应与美国教育考试服务中心的学术写作目标保持一致。这样可以提高托福网考中考核的EAP写作技能。以上方法的教学模型之一可以通过示例教学计划来说明,教学使用以下任务型教学策略:

ETS学术目标与写作课堂教学

Using the ETS learning objectives and teaching techniques, teachers will maximize the potential of their classroom instruction to help students develop strong academic English writing abilities and TOEFL iBT test performance.

利用ETS学习目标和教学方法,教师将最大程度地发挥课堂教学潜能,帮助学生提高学术英语写作能力和新托福考试成绩。

ETS学术目标与托福网考写作评分标准

The Writing section of the TOEFL iBT test asks test takers to respond to two writing tasks, an integrated (skills) writing task and an independent writing task.

托福网考的写作部分要求考生完成两项写作任务:一项综合(技巧)写作任务和一项独立写作任务。

Integrated writing task

综合写作任务

For the integrated writing task, the test taker must write a short essay after reading and listening to different passages. First, a 300-word reading passage is displayed for 3 minutes, followed by a 2-minute recording of a speaker discussing the same topic (test takers should take notes on both). Test takers have 20 minutes to write an essay summarizing the points in the lecture and explaining how they relate to points in the reading passage.

综合写作部分要求考生先阅读文章,然后听另外一篇不同的文章录音。首先,考生需要在3分钟内阅读一篇300字的文章,然后听2分钟的演讲,阅读的文章和听到的文章属于同一主题(学生在阅读和听力过程中都应该做笔记)。考生需要在20分钟内完成一篇短文写作,文章需要对听到的文章要点进行总结,并解释这些要点与所阅读文章的关联性。

Question: Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they cast doubt on specific points made in the reading passage.

问题:总结听到的文章要点,务必要说明这些要点与所阅读文章中的特定观点的不同之处。

Independent writing task

独立写作任务

For the independent writing task, students write an essay that states, explains, and supports the writer’s opinion on a given issue. The student has 30 minutes.

在独立写作任务中,考生需要针对某个议题阐述、解释和论证自己的观点。考生需要在30分钟内完成写作。

Question: Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

People benefit more from traveling in their own country than from traveling to foreign countries.

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Be sure to use your own words. Do not use memorized examples.

•问题:你是否同意以下说法?

人们从本国旅游中比从国外旅游中获益更多。

•请说明具体理由,并应用相关例子来论证这一观点。请用自己的话阐述。要求举例新颖。

Both essays are scored on the following criteria:

两篇作文的评分标准如下:

Relevance to the topic and task

Organization; development; clarity; appropriate explanations, exemplifications and/or details

Unity; progression, and coherence

Syntactic variety; appropriate word choice; idiomaticity

Lexical or grammatical accuracy

•文章切题

•文章结构分明;逻辑清晰;论点明确;文章应用相应的解释、例证和/或具体说明

•文章完整;层次递进、论点前后一致

•句法多样性;词汇使用正确;表达地道

•词汇或语法使用准确

Integrated essays are scored on additional criteria:

综合作文的评分标准还有:

Selection of important and relevant information from the lecture

Coherent and accurate presentation of information from the reading

•能够从听到的文章中筛选出重要的和相关的信息

•能够连贯准确地表达出所阅读的文章内容

the purpose of the ETS academic objectives is to help instructors plan lessons that develop EAP abilities similar to those assessed on the TOEFL iBT test. See below how the objectives relate to a TOEFL iBT test integrated writing item.

美国教育考试服务中心设定学术目标的目的是帮助教师更好地规划课程,以提高学生托福网考之类的EAP能力。以下内容对学术目标与托福网考综合写作任务的关联性进行了说明。

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